Glossary of Library Terms
Located on Level A of Carlson Library, a collection of materials documenting the history of Clarion University and the records created by, for, and about Clarion University, as well as Clarion's students, alumni, and employees.
Photographs, records, and other publications in Archives do not circulate but may be used on-site. Contact Corene Glotfelty to schedule an appointment.
Verifying eligibility as a Clarion University student or employee authorized to use the Libraries' online resources and services.
Off-campus access is granted by using a Library ID and last name or iClarion username and password. Read more about logging in from off-campus.
Descriptive information of books, videos, CDs, etc., in the Libraries' online catalog.
Standard information includes author, title, location, call number, subjects, publisher, and description.
List of references - or works cited list - in a research paper.
The sources used for the paper.
A listing of citations/abstracts/annotations for books, book chapters, periodical articles, etc. on a topic or subject.
The United States in the Vietnam War, 1954-1975: A Selected, Annotated Bibliography of English-Language Sources.
"Connectors" used to search the Libraries' databases.
The most commonly used Boolean operators are AND, OR, and NOT. Combine search terms using these operators to expand or narrow a search or to exclude an idea from a search.
The AND operator narrows a search.
Search Apples AND Oranges to retrieve only items containing BOTH of the terms.
The OR operator expands a search.
Search Apples OR Oranges to retrieve citations and/or full-text items that mention EITHER of the terms.
Often used with synonyms and related terms, such as the search for Cats OR Felines.
The NOT operator excludes an idea from a search.
Search South America NOT Brazil to retrieve citations and/or full-text items that mention the first search term, but not the second.
Dewey Decimal call numbers are used for the juvenile (children and young adult) collections.
Often refers to the descriptive information for individual items (such as periodical articles and book chapters) found within periodical indexing sources.
A citation for a periodical article generally includes such fields as article title, periodical title, author(s), issue date, volume number, issue number, and page numbers.
Also refers to items listed in a research paper's bibliography, reference list, or works cited list.
A set of standard subject terms used by a database to describe the subject content of the items cited within the database.
Many, if not most, databases use a controlled vocabulary. These controlled vocabularies vary from database to database.
The Libraries' online catalog uses the Library of Congress Subject Headings as its controlled vocabulary.
The ERIC database uses the Thesaurus of ERIC descriptors as its controlled vocabulary.
A database's controlled vocabulary may be referred to in several different ways including subject headings, subject terms, or thesaurus.
An online, searchable collection of related information or citations.
The databases available through the Clarion University Libraries are listed on the Databases A-Z List.
Most of the databases subscribed to by the Clarion University Libraries are indexing/abstracting databases. This means that they provide indexing to periodicals, books, and other research resources as well as abstracts (summaries) of the articles within those sources.
Some indexing/abstracting databases are devoted to one subject area, while others are multidisciplinary.
Some are completely full-text or partially full-text, and provide instant, online access to the cited material.
Some databases provide access to information other than periodical or book chapter citations.
Multidisciplinary, Partially Full-text Databases:
- Academic Search Complete
Both provide indexing of periodical articles in a wide range of subject areas. They also provide full-text for many of the cited articles.
Indexing/abstracting database of periodical literature in the field of Economics.
- Biological Abstracts
Devoted to the field of Biology.
Completely Full-Text Databases:
Such databases provide indexing and abstracting, as well as complete full-text access.
- Mergent's Financial Information Online
Example of a database that provides access to data (in this cases, related to companies) rather than citations to periodical articles or book chapters.
See: Controlled Vocabulary
Direct Borrowing InterLibrary Loan
Clarion University has one direct borrowing InterLibrary Loan option: E-Z Borrow.
Use E-Z Borrow to search the holdings of other Pennsylvania libraries for books not held by Clarion University Libraries. Then, place a request to have materials sent to Carlson or Suhr Library for your use.
Periodical articles and media materials cannot be requested through E-Z Borrow. Use ILLiad to order periodical articles or media materials.
Because requested materials must be picked up at at a Clarion University Library, this service is not appropriate for most Clarion Online students. Clarion Online students should use the InterLibrary Loan services through ILLiad.
An electronic book available online.
Find citations to e-books in Primo, library catalog, or EBSCO Discovery Search. Pull up the full record, and access the e-book through the web link provided.
To access an e-book from off-campus, users must authenticate using either the library ID number and last name or an iClarion username and password.
As an alternative to using Primo, users may go to the E-Book Collections page to select a title or collection to search. This page also lists collections of e-books that are freely available on the Internet.
See: Direct Borrowing InterLibrary Loan
Federated Search Engine
A special library search engine that searches most (if not all) library-subscribed databases at the same time.
The Libraries' federated search engine is known locally as EBSCO Discovery Service.
Oversized (physically large) books. See Also: Quarto.
Books in the Folio category measure over 30 cm (approximately 11.8 inches) in height or width.
In Carlson Library, most folios are located on Level A. Those in the Library of Congress Z classification and N classification are shelved on Level 2.
Folios are identified by a lower case "f" preceding the call number, and are listed as located in the Main Folio Collection in Primo.
When a book (or other item) that is needed is checked out of the library, a patron may contact the Circulation Desk to place a "hold" on the item. This designation blocks the current user from renewing the item. When the item is returned to the library, the person requesting a "hold" is allowed the first opportunity to check it out.
Software system used to request and manage InterLibrary Loan (ILL) requests.
Online location that stores electronic articles that have been received from other libraries.
Clarion Online students use ILLiad to request materials from the University Libraries' collections.
Read more about ILLiad.
- Academic Search Complete (available through the Databases A-Z List) indexes periodical literature. This multidisciplinary index covers a wide variety of subject areas.
- Business Source Premier is a subject/topic-specific index of periodical literature in business and related fields.
- The Reader's Guide to Periodical Literature is a multidisciplinary print format index available in Carlson Library's reference collection.
Information Literacy Instruction
University classroom faculty and Library faculty work together to introduce students to research resources, processes, and methodology. These sessions teach students to effectively and efficiently find, use, and critically evaluate information.
A free service that allows Clarion University students, faculty, and staff to obtain materials that are not available in the Libraries' on-site collections.
Clarion Online students may use the service to request materials from the Libraries' on-site collections.
Clarion University uses ILLiad software to manage InterLibrary Loan requests.
For more information about InterLibrary Loan services, see the Library Services section of the Libraries' web site.
See also: Direct Borrowing InterLibrary Loan.
A type of periodical.
The term "journal" is sometimes used interchangeably with professional journal, scholarly journal, peer-reviewed journal, or refereed journal.
Generally refers to research-based publications, reporting on empirical research being done in a field. All academic and research fields have journals associated with them.
- The Journal of the American Medical Association
- The National Women's Studies Association Journal
The articles within scholarly journals are usually quite lengthy, have works cited/reference lists, and often report the results of research studies. Articles are often divided into sections including introduction, methodology, results and discussion. Most professors will require students to cite articles from journals in research paper's bibliography or works cited list.
Online tool that allows users to submit reference questions to Clarion University librarians.
Answers are provided within 24 hours (except over weekends and during holidays and University breaks).
Provides a searchable database of frequently asked questions.
Research guides authored by Clarion University Librarians offer information sources on a wide variety of topics. See: Clarion University Libraries' LibGuide collection
Clarion University students:
The number 9 plus your Clarion ID number. For example: 912345678.
I need help finding my student Clarion ID number!
Clarion University employees:
A nine-digit number consisting of a series of leading zeros followed by your employee ID number. (Use enough preceding zeroes to create a nine-digit number.) For example: 000098765.
Employee ID number can be found on current pay stub.
A type of periodical.
Generally refers to a popular publication issued on a regular basis that is intended for a general reader.
Examples of "magazines":
Time, Newsweek, U.S. News & World Report, Redbook, Good Housekeeping, and Car & Driver.
A space-saving format used for the storage of documents that was popular before computers.
A microcard reader is needed to read and/or make copies from the microcards. In Carlson Library, a microcard reader is available in the Periodicals area on Level 1.
Examples of documents on microcard in Carlson Library include back-files of Hansard's Parliamentary Debates and United Nations Publications.
A space-saving format used for the storage of documents that was popular before computers. A flat piece of transparent film, usually measuring approximately 4 x 5.5 inches.
The use of a microfiche reader is needed to read and/or make copies from microfiche. In Carlson Library, a microfilm/microfiche reader is available in the Periodicals area on Level 1.
Examples of documents on microfiche in Carlson Library include back-files of ERIC documents and Early American Imprints.
A space-saving format used for the storage of back issues of newspapers and periodicals that was popular before computers. Transparent film on a reel or spool.
The use of a microfilm reader is needed to read and/or make copies from microfilm. In Carlson Library, two microfilm readers (accommodating two types of microfilm) are available in the Periodicals area on Level 1.
Example of a periodical on microfilm in Carlson Library is the back-file of the New York Times newspaper.
Patron ID Number
See: Library ID Number
Oversized (physically large) books.
Also refers to a section of oversized books on Level A of Carlson Library. However, Library of Congress Z classification and N classification are shelved on Level 2.
Quartos are designated by a lower case "q" preceding the call number. The Libraries' online catalog often lists "Main Quarto Collection" as the location.
When a needed book (or other item) is checked out and currently overdue, a patron may request the Circulation desk to place a "recall" on the item. This blocks the current user from renewing the item. When returned, the user requesting recall is notified and is given the first opportunity to check out the item.
Dictionaries, encyclopedias, handbooks, directories, etc. that are often used to answer quick questions or provide background information about a topic before pursuing more detailed research.
A service that imports citations (for books, periodical articles, book chapters, etc.) from various databases or allows manual citation input.
Citations can be formatted into bibliographies, works cited lists, or reference lists in a wide variety of styles and formats including the commonly used formats of APA (American Psychological Association), MLA (Modern Language Association), and Chicago/Turabian.
Get RefWorks now!
To use Reserve material, users must present a valid University ID card.
- Clarion campus hard-copy reserve items are stored at the Circulation desk in Carlson Library.
- Venango College hard-copy reserve items are stored at the Circulation desk in Suhr Library.
To use E-Reserve materials, users must use the password supplied by the professor.
A specific guide for formatting research papers, citing research sources, and organizing a works cited list, reference list, or bibliography.
Commonly used style manuals include:
- APA (American Psychological Association)
- MLA (Modern Language Association)
See: Controlled Vocabulary
See: Controlled Vocabulary